Terpenes demonstrated to be able to act synergistically, contributing to creating the phytocannabinoid frame of the cannabis plant.
Terpenes can be found in major concentrations in the female plants of Cannabis which are not pollinated; quantity and composition obviously change according to the genetics of the plant and the conditions in which it has been cultivated.
Scientific studies demonstrate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, neuroprotectant, antimutagenic, antiallergic, antibiotic and anti-diabetic properties of terpenes.
Myrcene is one of the main terpenes present in the plant and characterizes several varieties with a musky aroma and with fragrances recalling cloves.
Amongst the characteristics of myrcene, we can find alleviating the symptoms of chronic pain and reducing inflammations: this occurs due to the bond which is created with the receptors of the endocannabinoid system, permitting in this manner the analgesic response on our organism.
As the most concentrated terpene in the cannabis plant, Myrcene is used as a sleep aid in several countries and can contribute to the ‘cough-lock’ effect associated with THC.
Myrcene is popular in the perfume industry because of its pleasant smell, and can also be found in hops preparations.
Effects of Myrcene
- Analgesic (Painkiller)
- Muscle relaxant
Limonene is a terpene that is found in low concentrations in the cannabis plant but is the second most common terpene in nature. Limonene can be found in limes, lemons, and other citrus fruits.
Limonene is commonly added to natural health products and cosmetics, most commonly for its relief of acid reflux and heartburn.
Effects of Limonene
- Anxiolytic (fights anxiety)
- Treats acid reflux and heartburn
- Fights acne
Pinene has anti-inflammatory ad neuro-stimulating characteristics and contributes to improving memory.
Effects of α-Pinene
- Bronchodilator (at low levels)
- Aids memory
In linalool sedative qualities can be observed and it would help to contrast insomnia.
Caryophyllene ( β-caryophyllene) is another concentrated terpene found in cannabis. It’s also one of the only terpenes proven to act on the endocannabinoid system. Research shows that Caryophyllene binds to CB2 receptors well, but not CB1 receptors, meaning that it is non-psychoactive.
Caryophyllene is present in black pepper and is thought to contribute to its spice levels.
Effects of Caryophyllene
- Gastrointestinal protection
- Fights malaria
Humulene has antibacterial qualities and would help to diminish appetite, contributing to its painkilling effects.
The research into cannabis terpenes has only just begun. However, we’ll be keeping all of our readers up to date with any breakthroughs within the CBD industry.